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In finance , a contract for difference CFD is a legally binding agreement that creates, defines, and governs mutual rights and obligations between two parties, typically described as "buyer" and "seller", stipulating that the buyer will pay to the seller the difference between the current value of an asset and its value at contract time.
The opposite is also true. Developed in Britain in as a way to leverage gold, CFDs have been trading widely since the early s. The invention of the CFD is widely credited to Brian Keelan and Jon Wood, both of UBS Warburg , on their Trafalgar House deal in the early s.
CFDs are different from financial transmission right FTR  in two ways. First, a CFD is usually defined at a specific location, not between a pair of locations. Thus, CFDs are a tool principally for hedging temporal price risk — the variation in the nodal pricing or locational marginal pricing LMP over time at a specific location. Second, CFDs are not traded through regional transmission organizations RTOs markets. CFDs were initially used by hedge funds and institutional traders to cost-effectively gain an exposure to stocks on the London Stock Exchange LSE , partly because they required only a small margin but also, since no physical shares changed hands, they also avoided stamp duty in the United Kingdom.
It remains common for hedge funds and other asset managers to use CFDs as an alternative to physical holdings or physical short selling for UK listed equities, with similar risk and leverage profiles.
A hedge fund's prime broker will act as the counterparty to CFD, and will often hedge its own risk under the CFD or its net risk under all CFDs held by its clients, long and short by trading physical shares on the exchange. Trades by the prime broker for its own account, for hedging purposes, will be exempt from UK stamp duty.
Institutional traders started to use CFDs to hedge stock exposure and avoid taxes. Several firms began marketing CFDs to retail traders in the late s, stressing its leverage and tax-free status in the United Kingdom.
A number of service providers expanded their products beyond the London Stock Exchange to include global stocks, commodities, bonds, and currencies. In the late s, CFDs were introduced to retail traders. They were popularized by a number of UK companies, characterized by innovative online trading platforms that made it easy to see live prices and trade in real-time. GNI provided retail stock traders with the opportunity to trade CFDs on LSE stocks through its innovative front-end electronic trading system , GNI Touch, via a home computer connected to the Internet.
For example, if a retail trader sent an order to buy a stock CFD, GNI would sell the CFD to the trader and then buy the equivalent stock position from the marketplace as a full hedge. GNI and its CFD trading service GNI Touch was later acquired by MF Global. They were soon followed by IG Markets and CMC Markets who started to popularize the service in Around , a number of the CFD providers realized that CFDs had the same economic effect as financial spread betting in the UK except that spread betting profits  were exempt from Capital Gains Tax.
Most CFD providers launched financial spread betting operations in parallel to their CFD offering. In the UK, the CFD market mirrors the financial spread betting market and the products are in many ways the same. However, unlike CFDs, which have been exported to a number of different countries, spread betting, inasmuch as it relies on a country-specific tax advantage, has remained primarily a UK and Irish phenomenon.
CFD providers then started to expand to overseas markets, starting with Australia in July by IG Markets first CFD provider to be licensed by ASIC and CMC Markets. They are available in most European countries, as well as Australia, Canada, Israel, Japan, Singapore, South Africa, Turkey, and New Zealand, throughout South America and others.
They are not permitted in a number of other countries — most notably the United States, where the Securities and Exchange Commission SEC and Commodity Futures Trading Commission CFTC prohibit CFDs from being listed on regulated exchanges and being traded on foreign or domestic trading platforms due to their high-risk nature. The Securities and Futures Commission of Hong Kong totally forbids CFD trading.
However, HK residents can trade CFD via oversea brokers. In the European Securities and Markets Authority ESMA issued a warning on the sale of speculative products to retail investors that included the sale of CFDs. The majority of CFDs are traded OTC using the direct market access DMA or market maker model, but from until June  the Australian Securities Exchange ASX offered exchange traded CFDs. As a result, a small percentage of CFDs were traded through the Australian exchange during this period.
The advantages and disadvantages of having an exchange traded CFD were similar for most financial products and meant reducing counterparty risk and increasing transparency but costs were higher. The disadvantages of the ASX exchange traded CFDs and lack of liquidity meant that most Australian traders opted for over-the-counter CFD providers.
In June , the UK regulator the Financial Services Authority FSA implemented a general disclosure regime for CFDs to avoid them being used in insider information cases. In October , LCH. Within Europe, any provider based in any member country can offer the products to all member countries under MiFID and many of the European financial regulators responded with new rules on CFDs after the warning. The majority of providers are based in either Cyprus or the UK and both countries' financial regulators were first to respond.
CySEC the Cyprus financial regulator, where many of the firms are registered, increased the regulations on CFDs by limiting the maximum leverage to as well prohibiting the paying of bonuses as sales incentives in November While the French regulator Autorité des marchés financiers decided to ban all advertising of the CFDs.
To support new low carbon electricity generation in the United Kingdom, both nuclear and renewable , contracts for difference were introduced by the Energy Act , progressively replacing the previous Renewables Obligation scheme.
A House of Commons Library report explained the scheme as:  . Contracts for Difference CfD are a system of reverse auctions intended to give investors the confidence and certainty they need to invest in low carbon electricity generation.
CfDs have also been agreed on a bilateral basis, such as the agreement struck for the Hinkley Point C nuclear plant. CfDs work by fixing the prices received by low carbon generation, reducing the risks they face, and ensuring that eligible technology receives a price for generated power that supports investment.
CfDs also reduce costs by fixing the price consumers pay for low carbon electricity. This requires generators to pay money back when wholesale electricity prices are higher than the strike price, and provides financial support when the wholesale electricity prices are lower.
In some countries, such as Turkey , the price may be fixed by the government rather than an auction. The main risk is market risk , as contract for difference trading is designed to pay the difference between the opening price and the closing price of the underlying asset. CFDs are traded on margin, which amplifies risk and reward via leverage. A study by Saferinvestor showed that the average client loss was It is this risk that drives the use of CFDs, either for speculation in financial markets, or for profit in a falling market through hedging.
Users typically deposit an amount of money with the CFD provider to cover the margin and can lose much more than this deposit if the market moves against them. In the professional asset management industry, an investment vehicle's portfolio will usually contain elements that offset the leverage inherent in CFDs when looking at leverage of the overall portfolio.
The use of CFDs in this context therefore does not necessarily imply an increased market exposure and where there is an increased market exposure, it will generally be less than the headline leverage of the CFD. If prices move against an open CFD position, additional variation margin is required to maintain the margin level.
The CFD providers may call upon the party to deposit additional sums to cover this, in what is known as a margin call. In fast moving markets, margin calls may be at short notice. Another dimension of CFD risk is counterparty risk , a factor in most over-the-counter OTC traded derivatives. Counterparty risk is associated with the financial stability or solvency of the counterparty to a contract.
In the context of CFD contracts, if the counterparty to a contract fails to meet their financial obligations, the CFD may have little or no value regardless of the underlying instrument. This means that a CFD trader could potentially incur severe losses, even if the underlying instrument moves in the desired direction. OTC CFD providers are required to segregate client funds protecting client balances in event of company default, but cases such as that of MF Global remind us that guarantees can be broken.
Exchange-traded contracts traded through a clearing house are generally believed to have less counterparty risk. Ultimately, the degree of counterparty risk is defined by the credit risk of the counterparty, including the clearing house if applicable.
This risk is heightened due to the fact that custody is linked to the company or bank supplying the trading. There are a number of different financial instruments that have been used in the past to speculate on financial markets. These range from trading in physical shares either directly or via margin lending, to using derivatives such as futures, options or covered warrants.
A number of brokers have been actively promoting CFDs as alternatives to all of these products. The CFD market most resembles the futures and options market, the major differences being:  . CFDs and Futures trading are both forms of derivatives trading.
A futures contract is an agreement to buy or sell the underlying asset at a set price at a set date in the future, regardless of how the price changes in the meanwhile.
The main advantages of CFDs, compared to futures, is that contract sizes are smaller making it more accessible for small traders and pricing is more transparent. Futures contracts tend to only converge to the price of the underlying instrument near the expiry date, while the CFD never expires and simply mirrors the underlying instrument.
Futures are often used by the CFD providers to hedge their own positions and many CFDs are written over futures as futures prices are easily obtainable.
CFDs don't have expiry dates so when a CFD is written over a futures contract the CFD contract has to deal with the futures contract expiration date.
The industry practice is for the CFD provider to ' roll ' the CFD position to the next future period when the liquidity starts to dry in the last few days before expiry, thus creating a rolling CFD contract. Options , like futures, are established products that are exchange traded, centrally cleared and used by professionals.
Options, like futures, can be used to hedge risk or to take on risk to speculate. CFDs are only comparable in the latter case. An important disadvantage is that a CFD cannot be allowed to lapse, unlike an option.
This means that the downside risk of a CFD is unlimited, whereas the most that can be lost on an option by a buyer is the price of the option itself. In addition, no margin calls are made on options if the market moves against the trader. Compared to CFDs, option pricing is complex and has price decay when nearing expiry while CFDs prices simply mirror the underlying instrument.
CFDs cannot be used to reduce risk in the way that options can. Similar to options, covered warrants have become popular in recent years as a way of speculating cheaply on market movements.
CFDs costs tend to be lower for short periods and have a much wider range of underlying products. In markets such as Singapore, some brokers have been heavily promoting CFDs as alternatives to covered warrants, and may have been partially responsible for the decline in volume of covered warrant. This is the traditional way to trade financial markets, this requires a relationship with a broker in each country, require paying broker fees and commissions and dealing with settlement process for that product.
With the advent of discount brokers, this has become easier and cheaper, but can still be challenging for retail traders particularly if trading in overseas markets. Without leverage this is capital intensive as all positions have to be fully funded. CFDs make it much easier to access global markets for much lower costs and much easier to move in and out of a position quickly.
All forms of margin trading involve financing costs, in effect the cost of borrowing the money for the whole position.
Margin lending , also known as margin buying or leveraged equities, have all the same attributes as physical shares discussed earlier, but with the addition of leverage, which means like CFDs, futures, and options much less capital is required, but risks are increased.
Since the advent of CFDs, many traders have moved from margin lending to CFD trading. The main benefits of CFD versus margin lending are that there are more underlying products, the margin rates are lower, and it is easy to go short. Even with the recent bans on short selling, CFD providers who have been able to hedge their book in other ways have allowed clients to continue to short sell those stocks.
Some financial commentators and regulators have expressed concern about the way that CFDs are marketed at new and inexperienced traders by the CFD providers.
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Dirangkum dari berbagai sumber kalian bisa mengetahui dengan lengkap buku biologi kelas 10 kurikulum merdeka. Mungkin, itulah yang menjadi pertanyaan Anda semua. Pembaharuannya dapat dilihat di: Daftar Perusahaan Properti di BEI. Within Europe, any provider based in any member country can offer the products to all member countries under MiFID and many of the European financial regulators responded with new rules on CFDs after the warning. Intip Penginapan Nuansa Bali di Arizona. Namespaces Article Talk.Klasemen Bola Nasional Liga Inggris Liga Spanyol Liga Italia Liga Dunia Internasional Free kick Arena Sea Games Secara umum, saham preferen terdiri dari dua jenis, yaitu saham preferen partisipasi dan saham preferen nonkumulatif. Baca Juga : Kenali Pajak Pembelian Rumah Sebelum Miliki Hunian Idaman. NFT: Eton dress shirts. Selain itu harga produk Anda akan dapat bersaing di pasaran karena mendapatkan bahan baku yang lebih murah dengan kualitas yang baik. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent perbedaan trading forex dan binary option Upload file. A hedge fund's prime broker will act as the counterparty to CFD, and will often hedge its own risk under the CFD or its net risk under all CFDs held by its clients, long and short by trading physical shares on the exchange.